In various defined periods, women go through a series of physiological phenomena that define different crucial stages in their life, such as development with puberty, climacteric and menopause with the end of reproductive age, which generate profound changes, both in the emotional and physical aspect (including the appearance of skin problems).
It is a physiological and biological process that is broadly defined as the permanent end of the ovarian and menstrual cycle, occurring in women between the ages of 40 and 55 (with a small percentage that could occur prior to age 40 but usually secondary to endocrine and immunological pathologies, in addition to surgeries where the ovaries are removed), a time that will depend on a series of environmental, personal and genetic factors, mainly to occur at a certain time prior to an adaptation period known as climacteric.
As a result of hormonal changes, the signs of aging are especially visible at the level of the skin, especially in places where more sunlight is received, such as the back of the hands and the face, which determines a not only physical appearance, but also mental and emotional of the patient depending on the type of personality and how skin problems are faced.
Why do these changes occur with menopause?
Since the first symptoms of menopause begin, the gradual reduction of estrogen to low levels with respect to what it represented in reproductive life also generates a decrease in the formation of collagen and connective tissue that will also produce consequences and direct impact on the skin, causing its progressive aging.
The action of estrogens conditions a greater thickness of the skin and maintains the elasticity and moisture necessary to stay healthy during youth, so that, with progressive deterioration until the arrival of menopause, skin problems begin to become visible.
Estrogens, which control the functioning of melanocytes (cells in charge of skin tone) decrease, losing control over melanin and causing the appearance of age spots (senile lentigines). Another skin problem is the tendency to be thicker and to form cracks on the palms and soles.
While it is true that personal (lifestyle and lifestyle) and family (genetics) antecedents play an important role in staying healthy and healthy for longer, depending on the person, the changes related to menopause will finally be visible.
Skin problems after menopause:
- Greater fragility: The skin thins and, by losing elasticity, it is more easily injured.
- Deeper and more numerous wrinkles: The elastin and collagen fibers degrade and the skin sags, causing greater sagging and the appearance of wrinkles.
- Impaired healing capacity.
- Loss of hydration: Skin hydration decreases, due to a physiological effect coupled with exposure to sunlight, becoming drier and rougher.
- Pigmented spots that are accentuated in areas exposed to the sun: Melanocytes are less effective in their skin protection function and are located unevenly on the skin, forming brown spots due to the accumulation in certain places of these cells with pigments, with a predominance of the back of the hands and face.
- Alopecia: Is the progressive loss of hair and hair. The hair follicle deteriorates and causes the growth cycle to be reduced and slowed down, so that the hair is becoming thinner and shorter, subsequently leading to progressive hair loss.
- Telangiectasia or spider veins: The menopause favors the appearance of vasodilation, with a predominance of lower limbs.
- Fat redistribution. Showing peach skin on abdomen and lower limbs.
There are studies that support the use of hormone replacement therapy due to its positive effects, in reducing the risk of osteoporosis, management of vaso-ovarian symptoms, vaginal dryness and a significant improvement in the rate of collagen and in delaying the presence of wrinkles.
However, there are also associated risks and not only related to skin damage, such as nevi, melasma or cloth, but also risks of thromboembolic pathologies or breast cancer depending on the patient and their history of course, so not it is a therapy for all equally.
Some topical treatments with local estrogens or creams with retinoic acid and glycolic acid also increase the rate of skin collagen. Likewise, it is important to have a healthy life, with exercise habits and balanced food, adequate consumption of liquids (water), avoiding pollutants such as cigarette smoke, overexposure to the sun, etc.